Kidney Disease Vocabulary | Karma Ayurveda Hospital



Called tummy or belly, it is the lower part of the trunk, below the chest.


Meaning short term and rapid progression.

Acute tubular necrosis

The most common reason why a person may have acute renal failure. Mostly caused by an obstruction in the blood vessels, sepsis, ischemia, or severe burns.

Afferent arteriole

This transmutes blood into the glomerulus


It is a type of protein that is present in the blood and needed for various regulatory functions.


It stands for anti-lymphocyte globulin which is used as a treatment against the rejection of a transplanted kidney.

Altruistic donor

A donor who gives a kidney for no money or reward in return.


A condition that occurs because of iron deficiency in the body resultant the body produces low red blood cells.


It is a type of drug that helps alleviate pain


It is the increased serum urea and creatinine levels in the blood

Analgesic nephropathy

Too much consumption of analgesics can result in this condition which can damage the parts of the kidneys.



Bacteria in the urine


It is a muscular sac in the pelvis and is the shape of a pear when it is empty.

Blood typing

During the transplant, this is a type of test or a procedure to determine the compatibility between the donor and the recipients’ RBCs.



A person who is no more or dead.


It is another term for kidney stones


A hollow tube used during dialysis to transfer fluids in and out of the body


It is a painful bacterial infection on the skin which causes inflammation of the tissues

Chronic glomerulonephritis

It is a progressive loss of glomeruli function that manifest as glomerular diseases.

Chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease is the loss of kidney function for more than 3 months.

Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)

It is a type of continuous peritoneal dialysis in which the blood is filtered at a regular interval of time for the whole day.

Continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis

It is a form of continuous dialysis in which the peritoneal dialysis is continuously filled with dialysate with the help of a machine.


A waste product of muscle activity that stays in the blood and is removed with the help of the kidneys. If your kidney function is low, the levels of creatinine will be high in the blood.


It is a condition in which the bladder gets inflamed.


Diabetes mellitus

When the insulin is not produced as much needed, it results in the variations of the levels of glucose in the blood. It is called diabetes mellitus.


The identification of the symptoms and the occurrence of the disease with the help of the test


It is a machine used during the dialysis procedure to remove the wastes from the blood.

Dialysis fluid

A fluid using during the dialysis procedure into which the wastes are passed.


A diuretic that enhances the flow of the urine.


A donor is a person who donates something


It is an imbalance of salts such as bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, potassium, and sodium in the blood.


Efferent arteriole

Transports the blood out of the glomeruli

End-stage renal disease

The last stage of chronic kidney disease which requires treatment approach to cure.


It is a tissue that covers the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels and forms glands.


The kidneys make a hormone that stimulates the bone marrow to produce RBCs for the body.


It is the normal level of sugar in the blood

Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy

It is a procedure used to break up stones in the kidney, ureter, and the bladder into smaller for the easy elimination of the stones through the urine.



It is a passage or duct used as a pathway for providing access to the bloodstream in which a vein and an artery are bound together in the arm.


Glomerular capillaries

The afferent arteriole is subdivided into a fist-like structure of 4 to 8 capillaries.

Glomerular filtration rate

The rate at which the kidneys filter the blood per minute. It provides the best estimate of the remaining kidney function. Higher the GFR, the better it is for your health.


It is an infection in the glomeruli that results in the inflammation of the filters of the kidneys.


Also called as the Bowman Capsule, this is a tuft of capillaries that spirals into a circular capsule.



It is the leakage of the red blood cells in the urine.


It is a type of allopathic treatment for kidney failure in which the blood is passed through an artificial dialyzer for separating the waste from the blood.


Responsible for the red color or the RBCs and also it is a type of protein that carries oxygen in your body.


It is a substance that is added to the blood during hemodialysis to prevent the dialysate solution from clotting in the dialyzer while the treatment is going.


It is the inability of the kidneys to pass the urine out of the body.


It is the accumulation of the urine in the ureter.


Also known as high blood pressure, this is the increase in the blood flow rate against the wall of the bloodstream.


This is the reduced level of the amount of protein in the blood



Insulin is a type of hormone that the pancreas produces to regulate the level of glucose or sugar in the blood.

Intermittent peritoneal dialysis

It is a form of peritoneal dialysis in which the procedure is done for two or three days a week.

Interstitial cystitis

It is a chronic form of non-bacterial cystitis occurring primarily in women. It is a type of inflammation in the bladder.

Internal urethral sphincter

It is a urethral sphincter muscle that makes the internal urethral orifice. It is located at the junction of the urethra and urinary bladder.


Temporary anemia caused by the obstruction of arterial blood flow.


Jugular vein

Blood vessels located on the side of the neck. Sometimes during the dialysis, this vein is used to get access to the inside.

Juxtaglomerular apparatus

It is composed of 2 types of cells that control renal blood flow, GFR, and the rennin secretion.



The internal organ of the body that helps in the blood filtration process and the production of the red blood cells while maintaining the fluid balance in the body.


It is an expression that measures the dose of dialysis where K is the rate of clearance, t is the time of the dialysis session, and V is the total urea distribution volume within the body after hemodialysis.


Loop of Henle

It is a hollow lope of the nephron that leads to the proximal convoluted tubule to the distal convoluted tubule.



Porous material or substance which is used to sift wastes from the blood.


It is the passing of the urine.



See glomerulonephritis


See renal calculi or stones


The branch of the medical science that deals with the kidneys.


It is the structural and functional unit of the kidneys primarily which helps in the blood filtration process. There are more than one million nephrons in one single kidney which are capable of making the urine and separating the waste from the blood.


It is the degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium

Nephritic syndrome

It is the excretion of large amounts of protein along with the urine along with other conditions such as low protein in the blood.

Neurogenic bladder

A functional urinary tract obstruction caused by the injury to the nerve that supplies the bladder.



The low urine excretion is termed as oliguria.


The distinct part of the body that is made up of several types of tissues in a prefixed structure.


Peritoneal cavity

It is the abdominal cavity that has the internal organs and the intestines lined by the peritoneal membrane.

Peritoneal dialysis

It is the treatment for kidney failure in which dialysis fluid is passed onto the peritoneal activity to carry out the blood filtration.


A thin membrane that covers the peritoneal cavity and the abdominal organ.


It is the inflammation of the peritoneum.

Phosphate binder

The medications that bind the phosphate together and prevents it from passing along with the feces matter.


It is a type of mineral present in the fluid that is regulated by the kidneys.

Plasma creatinine PCr concentration

A blood test is directly related to the glomerular filtration rate. The ratio is inversely proportional to each other.


These are the specialized cells in the glomerular epithelium that encapsulates around the capillaries.

Polycystic kidney disease

Polycystic kidney disease is an inherited condition that results in the fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys. Untreated PKD may manifest as chronic kidney failure.


Another mineral in the body, the level of which is regulated by the kidneys. Too much potassium level in the blood is a sign that your kidneys are not working well.


It is a nutrient that is obtained from the food one eats. Protein is found in dairy products and even from animal sources. It helps in the repair and maintenance of the body tissues.




It is a condition in which the urine has white blood cells or pus in it.


It is an infection of the renal pelvis and interstitium.


Reflux nephropathy

It is a type of kidney disease in which the urine backflow from the bladder up to the ureter and the kidney tissues.

Renal arteries

It is the fifth branch of the abdominal aorta that supplies the blood to the kidneys.

Renal cortex

It is the portion of the kidneys that have the parts of the glomeruli and the portions of the tubules.

Renal failure

It is the complete loss of kidney function.

Renal insufficiency

Decline in renal function to about 25% normal or a GFR of 25-30 ml/min.

Renal pelvis

It is a hollow structure which is an extension of the upper end of the ureter.

Renal stones

Renal stones are the crystals and protein originates in the kidneys. Kidney stones can occur anywhere along with the urinary tract which consists of these parts; the kidneys and ureter.


An enzyme that is produced and stored by the kidneys.

Renin-angiotensin system

It is a hormone that regulates the hypertension level and fluid and electrolyte balance, as well as systematic vascular resistance.



The presence and the persistence of pathogenic microorganisms or their toxins in the blood which affects the body as a whole.


It is a type of mineral in the body that regulates the fluid balance. The more the sodium you consume, the more is fluid retention which results in an increased level of blood pressure.

Staghorn calculi

It is the occurrence of the large stones in the pelvis and the calyces to form the branching stones.



It is a surgery done to replace the damaged organ or a portion of the tissue with a new one from one person to another.



In nephrology, ultrafiltration occurs at the fencing of the blood and the filtrate in a glomerular capsule to produce protein-free plasma.


It is a life-threatening condition in which the blood has exceptional levels of urea and other nitrogenous waste compounds.


Urea is the waste produced from the breakdown of protein.


It is a fiberoptic endoscopy to check for the interior of the ureter and the kidneys.


The tubular structure in the urinary system which moves the urine from the kidney to the bladder.


Along is a thin tube that passes the urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.


It is a test to diagnose kidney disease.


It is the branch of the medicine that deals with the diseases of the male and female urinary tract system.



Blood vessels that travel down to the heart.

Vitamin D

It is a fat-soluble chemical compound that gets naturally produced because of exposure to the sunlight and is needed for the vitalization of the body.